Статус лиц, пребывающих в США на неиммиграционной основе

ДВОЙНОЕ НАМЕРЕНИЕ

viza biznesРаздел 214 Акта Иммиграции и Национальностей отражает статус лиц, пребывающих в США на неиммиграционной основе. В параграфе  (h) FN 127 Акта говорится:
Тот факт, что иностранец, получивший право на проживание согласно параграфа 204 или приобревший статус постоянного жителя каким-либо другим способом, не означает необходимость отказа от предыдущего (иностранного) гражданства лишь с целью получения неиммигрантской американской визы согласно подпункта (H)(I) или  (L) раздела 101(a)(15), или по другой причине, если иностранец изменил свой статус, руководствуясь разделом 248 в период до последнего своего отъезда из Соединенных Штатов. 
Двойное намерение – это ситуация, когда кто-то ходотайствует о получении неиммигрантского статуса в Соединенных Штатах и, в тоже самое время, имеет намерение и желание стать иммигрантом.

Иммиграционный Акт однозначно утверждает, что иммигрант, не владеющий  иммигрантской визой, не имеет права на въезд в Соединенные

Штаты. Двойное намерение означает одновременное желание получить право въезда в Соединенные Штаты в качестве неиммигранта и, в тоже самое время, не поддерживать какой-либо резидентский статус за пределами США. Все другие неиммигрантские визы требуют от неиммигранта сохранения права на жительство в какой-либо стране за пределами США, но это не касается случая, когда речь идет о визе L-1. Другим аспектом двойного намерения получателя визы L-1 является желание остаться в Соединенных Штатах после окончания срока действия этой визы. Ни одна другая неиммигрантская виза  не позволяет одновременному сосуществованию этих двух условий. Таким образом, виза L-1 позволяет её обладателю оставаться в Соединенных Штатах на постоянной основе и, в тоже самое время, не требует от иностранца сохранения своего права на жительство за рубежом.

Иммиграционный Акт отражает целый ряд различных ситуаций

Одной из таковых является, что каждый претендент изначально рассматривается в качестве иностранца, т.е. лица, который не является гражданином Соединенных Штатов. Претендуя на любую неиммигрантскую визу такое лицо должно демонстрировать лишь намерения временного пребывания. Например, студенты-иностранцы должны иметь гражданство за пределами США и указывать на своё желание вернуться на постоянное место жительства после окончания учёбы.

Виза L-1 является уникальной в ряду неиммигрантских виз, поскольку позволяет её соискателю проживать в Соединенных Штатах без сохранения права на жительство в другой стране. Эта уникальность данной визы признаётся и судебным прецедентом, если ясно прослеживается отсутствие намерения остаться в США, работая там в качестве лица, переместившегося  по переводу внутри одной и той же квалифицированной организации,  Для этого достаточно доказать, что изначальным намерением обладателя визы было временное нахождение в США. Конгресс Сорединенных Штатов поддерживает концепцию двойного намерения как таковую. По этой причине соискатели визы L-1 получают так называемый, “белый трудовой сертификат” ( blanket labor certificates), который означает, что данное лицо не претендует на полноценный трудовой сертификат, выдаваемый Департаментом Труда. Для получения трудового сертификата иностранец должен  трудоустроиться с помощью рекламы, пройдя через стандартный процесс поиска рабочего места. Но эта ситуация не распространятся на лиц, получивших визу L-1, поскольку им не нужен трудовой сертификат.

Конгресс, создавая Иммиграционный Акт, определил лишь его главные положения и направления, которые в дальнейшем регулируются Федеральными агентствами в соответствии с определениями документов Конгресса.  Иммигрант определяется Конгрессом как иностранец без неиммигрантского статуса. Понятие “иммигранты” может быть тождественно категории “иностранец”.

Иммигранты четко должны понимать свой статус, являются они иммигрантами или неиммигрантами? 

Виза L-1 предполагает наличие неиммигрантского статуса. Являясь неиммигрантами, инострацы должны убедить Консульство США в том, что они пребывают в Соединенные Штаты временно для выполнения определенных обязанностей. Затем, по прошествии определенного периода времени, если их компания успешно развивается, соискатель визы L- может решить остаться в Соединенных Штатах постоянно. В этот момент статус может быть изменен с неиммигрантского  на иммигрантский. Очень важно именно то, является ли статус неиммигрантским или иммигрантским. Проблема возникает, когда иностранец находится на черте неиммигрантского  и  иммигрантского статуса. Такая ситуация возникает тогда, когда срок действия визы L-1 заканчивается, а бумажная волокита по оформлению иммигрантского статуса ещё не завершена. И это может стать огромной проблемой для иностранца. Иностранец может быть обвинен в нелегальном нахождении в стране, если его иммигрантский статус чётко не определен. Понятие двойного намерения, связанное с визой L-1, заключается в наличии двух концепций, позволяющих одновременное сосуществование иммигрантского и неиммигрантского статуса. Однако, наступает период времени, когда нужно принимать окончательное решение в отношении того, каким статусом воспользоваться иммигрантским или неиммигрантским.

Соискатель визы L-1 должен сначала сфокусировать своё внимание на неиммигрантском статусе и позволить  Harvard Business Services, Inc. стать ответственной за прохождение всего длительного и сложного пути к иммигрантскому статусу.  Harvard Business Services, Inc. должна быть уверена в том, что соискатель хорошо знаком и придерживается законодательства СИН, чтобы не возникли законодательные проблемы в связи с наличием понятия “двойного намерения”.

CREATING A NEW OFFICE IN THE UNITED STATES

The United States Government encourages aliens to come to the United States to start up new businesses. The L-1 Visa was created out of this concept. The Supreme Court of The United States has said over and over that the business of America is business. Corporations are in business to make a profit first, serving the public being a secondary objective. The United States is a business country and the Government does everything possible to help entrepreneurs. Not only does the U.S. summon but it beckons the brains of the world. Innovative people from anywhere in the world are welcome in the United States, and their works will not go unrewarded. If an L-1 Visa recipient has a profitable business, the recipient will share in the rewards of that business. 

L-1 Visa recipients do not have to file for Labor Certificate in order to work in the U.S. This means that the employer in the United States does not need to advertise for the job position. Much of the bureaucratic red tape is eliminated in the L-1 Visa process. The Labor Certificate is intended to protect the U.S. society and its workforce by allowing U.S. workers to have first rights to any job opening; however, Congress has made a special provision in the case of the L-1 Visa by not requiring the alien to have a Labor Certificate in order to work. The L classification was created because people who qualify for this visa are high level managers and administrators, the type of workers that the U.S. Government encourages to come to the United States to work, being a valuable addition to the U.S. work force. 

THE B-1 BUSINESS VISA

This visa allows a person to come into the United States to investigate business opportunities, although it does not grant working rights. Recipients of the B-1 Visa must prove the existence of a residence in a foreign country, which they have no intention of abandoning. The B-1 Visa recipient will also be required to present a round-trip ticket to the Immigration Officer at the port of entry into the United States. 

It is worthy to note that when Congress wrote the definition for the L-1 Visa, it did not put in the clause that the immigrant must has a residence in a foreign country with no intention of abandoning that residence.

The visitor for business purposes can take orders for business, can look for a suitable place for the business, but cannot run a business nor be involved in the production of the business. The B-1 Visa does enable the recipient to go to business conferences, business meetings, and discuss business with other Americans.

THE L-2 VISA

This visa is for the spouse and any dependents under 21years old of the L-1 recipient. This status resembles tourist classification. The L-2 Visa is not accompanied with any employment rights. This means that the L-2 recipients cannot find work in the United States as long as they have the L-2 classification. This does pose some problems. For example if an L-1 recipient has a son or a daughter in high school and the child has an L-2 classification, the child cannot be employed anywhere in the United States. Once the L-1 recipient becomes an applicant for Permanent Residence, then the L-2 of the spouse and the dependents will be changed, and they also will be granted Permanent Residence, giving them the freedom to find employment anywhere in the United States. 

Another problematic situation that might arise is when the L-1 recipient has a child who is 20 years old and has L-2 classification. L-2 status can no longer be given to this child as soon as the 21st birthday is reached because the definition of child is no longer fulfilled, child being someone under 21 years of age.

APPLYING FOR THE L-1 VISA

Applicants for the L-1 Visa who go into American Embassies and Consulates need to make a clear and concise presentation to the United States Foreign Service Officers. Either too much information or too little information will make a bad impression. The alien should not feel the need to give the Foreign Service Officer a portfolio of their entire life; however, the alien should have a detailed resume of several pages that sums up life and business experiences. The presented documents should outline any connections that exist in the alien▓s own country, but does not need to be presented with boxes full of documents. Simply, follow the process for applying for a nonimmigrant visa without offering any additional information than what is required. 

The applicant should be very much in tune with the Foreign Service Officer who is processing the L-1 Visa application. This Officer has been trained by the U.S. Government to identify solid L-1 Visa recipients, and the Government of the United States will stand by the decisions handed down by the Foreign Service. The applicant needs to have a very helpful and friendly attitude, an attitude of respect to the Foreign Service Officer because the applicant is asking for something. There is a lot of discretion in the decision making process that is left up to the Foreign Service Officer. Each applicant will have to meet one on one with a Foreign Service Officer, and this interview is very critical in determining whether or not the L-1 Visa will be granted. Once the Foreign Service Officer makes a decision, that decision is almost always final. The State Department in Washington, DC will almost always stand by the decision passed down by the Foreign Service Officer. The State Department has hired and trained the Foreign Service Officer, and will support the Officer▓s judgment in L-1 Visa decisions.

The interview with the Foreign Service Officer is probably the most important part in the process of receiving an L-1 Visa. A delay in the process at the interview can cause very serious problems in the entire L-1 Visa process. 

A LEGAL CASE FOR THE L-I VISA

There was an L-1 Visa legal case in Georgia which involved a prominent attorney in the American Immigration Lawyers Association. He filed a petition for a nonimmigrant L-1 Visa for his client. He also filed for a Labor Certificate that would be used to classify the client as an immigrant at the same time. Therefore, in this case, the concept of dual intent became apparent. The alien was applying for nonimmigrant and immigrant status at the same time, which had been contrary to Immigration Law. The Immigration Service decided to take this case to court as an example to show that an alien could not be a nonimmigrant and an immigrant at the same time; that this dual intent was contrary to the foundation principles of Immigration Law. This case ended up in Federal District Court. The U.S. Government tried to prove that nonimmigrants had to have a residence outside of the United States where they intended to return after temporary employment in the U.S. The U.S. Government argued that the alien was illegal and fraudulent in his dual intent to work temporarily in the U.S. while at the same time having no intention of returning to his homeland. The Federal Judge ruled in favor of the L-1 Visa recipient and against the U.S. Government, saying that the intent of the U.S. Congress was to enable the intracompany transferee to leave his home country where he had been employed as an executive or manager for a year or more to come to live in the United States. The Judge ruled that the L-1 Visa recipient was giving up a home and a residence abroad in order to come to the United States to work and to live. The Judge reasoned that the L-1 Visa recipient was buying a home and establishing a residence in the U.S. while working here. 

Even though this case has set a precedent, it is still prudent to purse one alien status – nonimmigrant – before pursing another status – immigrant. It makes more sense to obtain the L-1 Visa first; and then – after a period of time – seek the immigrant classification of Permanent Residence. 
INSPECTION BY THE IMMIGRATION OFFICERS AT THE BORDER

There is a section in the Immigration Act that covers inspection of the alien by the Immigration Service upon the alien▓s arrival to the United States. In summary, this section states that:

┘every alien who may not appear to the examining officer at a port of entry to be clearly and beyond a doubt entitled to land shall be detained for further inquiry, to be conducted by a special inquiry officer. The decision of the examining immigration officer can be contested by any other immigration officer, regardless of the rank of the officers. The decision of the examining immigration officer if favorable to the admission of any alien shall be subject to challenge by any other Immigration Officer; and such challenge shall operate to take the alien whose privileged land is so challenged, before a special inquiry officer. Special Inquiry Officers are now called Immigration Judges.

What this means is that rank does not matter if one Immigration Officer challenges the decision of entry by another Immigration Officer. It is rare that an official▓s decision is challenged by another official, but it has happened on a few occasions. Nobody can overrule this challenge situation, not even the highest ranking Immigration Official. This system was designed to keep both the Immigration Officials and the Aliens honest; otherwise, bribes could be offered by the Aliens and accepted by the Immigration Officials.
SECTION 248 OF THE IMMIGRATION ACT

Section 248 of the Immigration Act deals with nonimmigrant change of status, which allows people to come into the United States on a B-1 visa, which is a visitor for business purposes visa; and then, change that status to L-1 status if a business opportunity becomes apparent in the United States. Paperwork can be filed in the United States to change the immigration status from a B-1 to an L-1 without the person having to go all the way back to his home country. There will be a delay while the paperwork is being processed; however, once the Immigration Center has the L-1 Visa application, a decision will be made within 30 days. During the interim waiting period, no business can be conducted other than those activities permitted by the B-1 Visa. This change from B-1 to L-1 status is built in the Form 1-129, which is the L-1 Visa application form. 

The application for change of status from B-1 to L-1 can occur very soon after arrival in the United States, even as soon as three weeks to a month after the B-1 Visa recipient has arrived in the U.S. If someone comes into the U.S. on a B-1 Visa to investigate business potential and discovers within a week or two that the business will prosper, the paperwork for an L-1 Visa can be filed immediately. So, in the course of six weeks, an alien arriving in the U.S. with a B-1 Visa can have L-1 status issued by the Immigration Service in the United States. 

In order to make this change of status, the alien must take Form I-94, which is the arrival and departure ticket in the passport, and mail Form along with the I-129 L-1 petition form to the Immigration Service. The Immigration will send the application back with the words ⌠Nonimmigrant Change of Status from B-1 to L-1.■ This whole process can be done through the mail without the need to visit an Immigration Officer. The change of status from B-1 to L-1 is valid as long as the alien is in the United States. 

It is important to understand that when the alien changes from B-1 status to L-1 status, there is no L-1 Visa issued. Only the status is changed. To travel in and out of the United States, an L-1 Visa must be presented at the U.S. port of entry. A visa is a multicolored stamp in the passport, which is a permit to proceed to the U.S. Immigration Service does not issue visas; it only confers immigration status. This means that an alien can change from B-1 to L-1 status in a very short period of time, but this does not mean that the alien now has an L-1 Visa, which is needed to go in and out of the United States. The alien must be mindful of the distinction between L-1 status and the L-1 Visa. If the alien leaves the United States with L-1 status but no L-1 Visa, entry in the U.S. will not be authorized by the Immigration Service. 
In order to obtain the L-1 Visa, the alien must take the Form I-129 notice of L-1 status approval issued by the Immigration Service in the U.S. to an American Embassy or Consulate outside the United States. The change to L-1 status approval must be presented along with the alien▓s passport to the Foreign Service Officials. After an interview with the Foreign Service, the L-1 Visa will be affixed to the alien▓s passport, making entry into the U.S. possible. Then the alien can proceed to the United States. At the U.S. port of entry the Immigration Official will stamp Form I-94 and staple it into the alien▓s passport. The alien will then go through U.S. Customs and pass into the United States.

THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND THE ALIEN

It is the responsibility of the United States Government to screen out terrorists and other people not good for the well being of the United States. This is not the responsibility of Harvard Business Services, Inc. Harvard Business Services, Inc. will have its clients fill out work sheets and will trust that the answers to these questions are true and correct. 

It is not the responsibility of Harvard Business Services, Inc. to conduct in-depth background investigations on every client. These investigations will be conducted by the U.S. Government. The U.S. State Department has an elaborate lookout system to guard the United States against criminals. Foreign Service Officials are responsible for screening the people who enter the United States. 

INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURS AND THE IMMIGRATION SERVICE 

There are between 750,000 and 1,000,000 nonimmigrant students in the United States. Most of these student pay their own way. They don▓t work; and for the most part, they do not violate the laws of the United States. They bring in the excess of 5 billion dollars of hard currency each year, this being a big plus for the balance of payment. Many of these students become international entrepreneurs, never forgetting their American experiences. 

During the 1970▓s, when the U.S. experienced its oil crisis, the problems were not as serious as they could have been has it not been for many middle eastern powerful people who had been educated in the United States. 

The Immigration Service understands that we live in a ⌠Global Village■ and wants to extend to every alien the privilege to come to the United States to start up a business that will be successful
NOTICE TO READERS

The information in this publication is written for the consideration of the reader. It must be understood that this information is not to be acted upon without independent choice. Guidance and consultation from other sources is also encouraged. It is your responsibility to inform yourself through research and consultation before making any decisions.

The publisher of this book does not accept any responsibility to any person, resulting from action taken as a result of reading this book. Your Complete Guide to Obtaining The L-1 Visa attempts to describe the process of obtaining an L-1 Visa. The publisher does not claim to describe everything about the L-1 Visa. The book is published for informational purposes only and is not and should not be construed as legal advise. If you wish legal advise about the L-1 Visa, Harvard Business Services, Inc. will put you in contact with immigration attorneys, who are experts in the legal aspects of obtaining an L-1 Visa. We are not a law firm, and we go not give legal or financial advise. This book was reviewed and edited by immigration attorneys. 

All rights to this publication are strictly reserved. Copyright У 1996, Harvard Business Services, Inc. No section or part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the expressed written permission of the publisher. 
After reading Your Complete Guide To Obtaining The L-1 Visa, if you are interested in more information write to:

HARVARD BUSINESS SERVICES, INC.
210 Savannah Road
Lewes, Delaware 19958 USA
Fax: +(302) 645-1280

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